The climatology provides mapped data of δ13C in the preindustrial and the modern global ocean, as well as of the full 13C Suess effect over the industrial period. The distributions were constructed as described in Eide et al. [2017a] and Eide et al. [2017b]. The data are openly available but these two papers have to be cited whenever and wherever these data are used:

Eide, M., A. Olsen, U. Ninnemann, and T. Eldevik (2017a), A Global Estimate of the Full Oceanic 13C Suess Effect Since the Preindustrial, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi:10.1002/2016GB005472.

Eide, M., A. Olsen, U. Ninnemann, and T. Johannessen (2017b), A Global Ocean Climatology of Preindustrial and Modern Ocean δ13C, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi:10.1002/2016GB005473.

The climatology was developed using data that was collected mostly during the 1990s, and the modern ocean δ13C and the full 13C Suess effect estimates should be considered to represent this time period.  

The data are provided as two files, both on a 1˚×1˚ grid. One provides all data for the global ocean at 24 depth levels, starting from 200 m. The other provides a full depth grid of the 13C Suess effect, on 33 depth levels. Estimates for the upper 200 m preindustrial and modern oceans δ13C distributions could not be generated as there are insufficient data to describe the upper ocean δ13C seasonal cycle globally; see Eide et al. [2017a] and Eide et al. [2017b] for further details.

The climatology can be downloaded here.


The preindustrial δ13C distribution (‰) at selected locations in the Atlantic Ocean; (a) at 200 m depth in the North Atlantic, (b) along 45˚W in the North Atlantic, (c) at 200 m depth in the South Atlantic, and (d) along 30˚W in the South Atlantic.



DATED-1: A Eurasian ice sheet chronology

Evolution of the Eurasian ice sheets 40-10 ka as based on the DATED-1 time-slice maps, Anna Hughes


DATED-1 comprises a compilation of dates related to the build-up and retreat of the Eurasian (British-Irish, Scandinavian, Svalbard-Barents-Kara Seas) Ice Sheets, and time-slice maps of the Eurasian Ice sheet margins. The aim is to produce synchronous ice margin reconstructions, or time-slice maps, showing the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheets through the last glacial cycle. The maps summarise the available geological evidence and thus provide a critical empirical test for results from numerical and isostatic ice sheet modelling.

Dates are sourced from the published literature. Ice margins are based on published geological and chronological data and depict the evolution of the ice sheet extent through the last 40000 years. Between 25000 and 10000 years ago the time-slice maps document the ice sheet margin every 1000 years and include uncertainty bounds (maximum, minimum) as well as what we consider to be the most-credible (mc) based on the available evidence. Evidence for the earlier period of ice sheet build up is too sparse to represent uncertainties in the same manner. Four maps depict ice sheet development from around 40000 to 25000 years ago.

The database and time-slice maps are available to download in GIS shapefiles (.shp) and Google Earth (.kmz) format (data are available here). We are also considering release of alternative formats (such as NetCDF) and we welcome suggestions from data users.

DATED-1 has a census date of 1 January 2013. Full description and caveats for use of the data are given in: Hughes, A.L.C., Gyllencreutz, R., Lohne, Ø.S., Mangerud, J., Svendsen, J.I. (2015) The last Eurasian Ice Sheets - a chronological database and time-slice reconstruction, DATED-1. Boreas. doi:10.1111/bor.12142

For more information, please visit the DATED webpage or the Bjerknes webpage.



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Release of SOCAT version 3

The third version of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas, SOCATv3, was released on the 7th of September 2015. The release took place at the joint SOCAT and SOCOM community event preceding the SOLAS Open Science Conference in Kiel, Germany. BCDC has contributed majorly in the process towards this release. Please visit for more information and access to the SOCATv3 data products.


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